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Chemistry Note

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Periodicity

Feature Title

In this chapter you should be able to:

  • Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table in order of increasing atomic number
  • Distinguish between the terms group and period
  • Deduce the relationship between the electron configuration of elements and their position in the periodic table
  • Describe and explain the periodic trends in atomic radii,ionic radii,ionization energies,electronegativity and melting points for the alkali metals (Li -> Cs) halogens (F -> I) and period 3 elements Na -> Ar)
  • Discuss the similarities in chemical nature of elements in the same group
  • Discuss the change in nature,from metallic to non-metallic, of the elements across period 3.
  • Explain the physical properties of the chlorides and oxides of the elements in the third period (Na -> Ar) in terms of their bonding and structure
  • Describe the chemical trends for the chlorides and oxides
  • Lis the characteristic properties of transition elements
  • Identify which elements are considered to be typical of the d-block elements
  • Describe the existence of variable oxidation states in d-block elements
  • Define the term 'ligand'
  • Describe how complexes of d-block elements are formed
  • Explain why some complexes of d-block elements are coloured
  • Outline the catalytic behaviour of d-block elements are coloured

 

 

The Periodic Table

 

Periodic Table of the Elements

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac Unq Unp Unh Uns Uno Une
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Name Number Weight
Melts Freezes

Legend
Metals A solid substance that is a good conductor of eat and electicity. Can be formed into many shapes.
Metalloid "Middle elements" - conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals. Easier to shape than nonmetals, but not as easy as metals. Solid at room temperature.
Nonmetals A poor conductor of heat and electricity. Not easily formed into shapes.

 

In Periodic table,elements are arranged from left to right,which is an increasing in atomic number.Elements with same characteristics are arranged vertically which is known as Group.There are 17 groups numbered.Elements in a group contains same value of valence electron.Elements that across the periodic table horizontally are known as Period.The elements in group 1 are called alkali metals.The elements in group 17 are called halogens.The elements in group 18 are called noble gases.

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