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Chemistry Note

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Periodicity

Feature Title

In this chapter you should be able to:

  • Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table in order of increasing atomic number
  • Distinguish between the terms group and period
  • Deduce the relationship between the electron configuration of elements and their position in the periodic table
  • Describe and explain the periodic trends in atomic radii,ionic radii,ionization energies,electronegativity and melting points for the alkali metals (Li -> Cs) halogens (F -> I) and period 3 elements Na -> Ar)
  • Discuss the similarities in chemical nature of elements in the same group
  • Discuss the change in nature,from metallic to non-metallic, of the elements across period 3.
  • Explain the physical properties of the chlorides and oxides of the elements in the third period (Na -> Ar) in terms of their bonding and structure
  • Describe the chemical trends for the chlorides and oxides
  • Lis the characteristic properties of transition elements
  • Identify which elements are considered to be typical of the d-block elements
  • Describe the existence of variable oxidation states in d-block elements
  • Define the term 'ligand'
  • Describe how complexes of d-block elements are formed
  • Explain why some complexes of d-block elements are coloured
  • Outline the catalytic behaviour of d-block elements are coloured

 

 

Physical Properties

Group1
-grey solid with shining surface at room temperature
-soft and easily cut
-low density
-electric and heat conductor
-low melting and boiling point
-Slight changes down the group
-Down the group,size of the atom increases.
-Down the group,the density increases
-Down the group,melting point and boiling point decreases
-Down the group,become softer

Group 17
-diatomic molecules
-down the group increases the size of the atom
-low melting and boiling point due to the weak Van der Waals forces,but down the group,the melting and boiling point increase because the size of the molecule become bigger,make the Van der Waals forces stronger
-Low density,but increases down the group,because the slight increase of mass rather than the atom radius
-non-electric conductor
-weak heat conductor
-high electronegativity
-down the group,electronegativity decreases because of the distance of outer shell from nucleus increases,make the forces of proton weaker.

Group 18
-monoatomic molecules
-weak forces between the atom

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